Gauss Kruger

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Projection name: Gauss-Krüger

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Gauss-Krüger ガウス=クリューゲル図法

  • Projection naming principle: Principle of Originator and Principle of Formulator.
  • Year of origin: 1822.
  • Name of originator: Carl Friedrich Gauss (Göttingen).
  • Originator reference:
  • Year of formulation: 1822.
  • Name of formulator: Carl Friedrich Gauss, refined by Louis Krüger.
  • Formula citation:
  • Projection synonyms:
    • Gauss conformal
    • ellipsoidal transverse Mercator
    • transverse Mercator (USA)
  • Projection properties:
    • conformal
    • constant scale along central meridian
  • Projection derivatives:
  • Naïve specializations:
  • Generalizations:

Chronology of projection development

(See Mercator for history of the spherical equatorial Mercator.)

  • 1772: Johann Heinrich Lambert develops the transverse form of the Mercator.
  • 1822: Carl Friedrich Gauss formulates the ellipsoidal form of the transverse Mercator.
  • 1912: Louis Krüger improves the efficiency of Gauss’s formulation.
  • 1922: Louis Krüger further refines the formulation, which becomes the basis for all modern ellipsoidal transverse Mercator systems.
  • ca. 1947: U.S. Army Mapping Service establishes the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid and projection system, based on a series of zones covering the whole earth. Each zone is a Gauss-Krüger with a local central meridian scaled to 0.9996.