# Gauss Kruger

From ICA Map Projections

# Projection name: Gauss-Krüger

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Gauss-Krüger | ガウス＝クリューゲル図法 |

- Projection naming principle: Principle of Originator and Principle of Formulator.
- Year of origin: 1822.
- Name of originator: Carl Friedrich Gauss (Göttingen).
- Originator reference:
- Year of formulation: 1822.
- Name of formulator: Carl Friedrich Gauss, refined by Louis Krüger.
- Formula citation:
- Projection synonyms:
- Gauss conformal
- ellipsoidal transverse Mercator
- transverse Mercator (USA)

- Projection properties:
- conformal
- constant scale along central meridian

- Projection derivatives:
- Naïve specializations:
- Generalizations:

## Chronology of projection development

(See Mercator for history of the spherical equatorial Mercator.)

- 1772: Johann Heinrich Lambert develops the transverse form of the Mercator.
- 1822: Carl Friedrich Gauss formulates the ellipsoidal form of the transverse Mercator.
- 1912: Louis Krüger improves the efficiency of Gauss’s formulation.
- 1922: Louis Krüger further refines the formulation, which becomes the basis for all modern ellipsoidal transverse Mercator systems.
- ca. 1947: U.S. Army Mapping Service establishes the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid and projection system, based on a series of zones covering the whole earth. Each zone is a Gauss-Krüger with a local central meridian scaled to 0.9996.